## Sunday, May 24, 2020

### What Is an Electric Field Definition, Formula, Example

When a balloon is rubbed against a sweater, the balloon becomes charged. Because of this charge, the balloon can stick to walls, but when placed beside another balloon that has also been rubbed, the first balloon will fly in the opposite direction. Key Takeaways: Electric Field An electric charge is a property of matter that causes two objects to attract or repel depending on their charges (positive or negative).An electric field is a region of space around an electrically charged particle or object in which an electric charge would feel force.An electric field is a vector quantity and can be visualized as arrows going toward or away from charges. The lines are defined as pointing radially outward, away from a positive charge, or radially inward, toward a negative charge. This phenomenon is the result of a property of matter called electric charge. Electric charges produce electric fields: regions of space around electrically charged particles or objects in which other electrically charged particles or objects would feel force. Electric Charge Definition An electric charge, which can be either positive or negative, is a property of matter that causes two objects to attract or repel. If the objects are oppositely charged (positive-negative), they will attract; if they are similarly charged (positive-positive or negative-negative), they will repel. The unit of electric charge is the coulomb, which is defined as the amount of electricity that is conveyed by an electrical current of 1 ampere in 1 second. Atoms, which are the basic units of matter, are made of three types of particles: electrons, neutrons, and protons. Electrons and protons themselves are electrically charged and have a negative and positive charge, respectively. A neutron is not electrically charged. Many objects are electrically neutral and have a total net charge of zero. If there is an excess of either electrons or protons, thus yielding a net charge that is not zero, the objects are considered charged. One way to quantify electrical charge is by using the constant e 1.602 *10-19 coulombs. An electron, which is the smallest quantity of negative electrical charge, has a charge of -1.602 *10-19 coulombs. A proton, which is the smallest quantity of positive electrical charge, has a charge of 1.602 *10-19 coulombs. Thus, 10 electrons would have a charge of -10 e, and 10 protons would have a charge of 10 e. Coulombs Law Electric charges attract or repel each other because they exert forces on each other. The force between two electric point chargesÃ¢â‚¬â€idealized charges that are concentrated at one point in spaceÃ¢â‚¬â€is described by CoulombÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s law. Coulombs law states that the strength, or magnitude, of the force between two point charges is proportional to the magnitudes of the charges and inversely proportional to the distance between the two charges. Mathematically, this is given as: F (k|q1q2|)/r2 where q1 is the charge of the first point charge, q2 is the charge of the second point charge, k 8.988 * 109 Nm2/C2 is CoulombÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s constant, and r is the distance between two point charges. Although there are technically no real point charges, electrons, protons, and other particles are so small that they can be approximated by a point charge. Electric Field Formula An electric charge produces an electric field, which is a region of space around an electrically charged particle or object in which an electric charge would feel force. The electric field exists at all points in space and can be observed by bringing another charge into the electric field. However, the electric field can be approximated as zero for practical purposes if the charges are far enough from each other. Electric fields are a vector quantity and can be visualized as arrows going toward or away from charges. The lines are defined as pointing radially outward, away from a positive charge, or radially inward, toward a negative charge. The magnitude of the electric field is given by the formula E F/q, where E is the strength of the electric field, F is the electric force, and q is the test charge that is being used to Ã¢â‚¬Å"feelÃ¢â‚¬  the electric field. Example: Electric Field of 2 Point Charges For two point charges, F is given by CoulombÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s law above. Thus, F (k|q1q2|)/r2, where q2 is defined as the test charge that is being used to Ã¢â‚¬Å"feelÃ¢â‚¬  the electric field.We then use the electric field formula to obtain E F/q2, since q2 has been defined as the test charge.After substituting for F, E Ã‚  (k|q1|)/r2. Sources Fitzpatrick, Richard. Ã¢â‚¬Å"Electric Fields.Ã¢â‚¬  The University of Texas at Austin, 2007.Lewandowski, Heather, and Chuck Rogers. Ã¢â‚¬Å"Electric Fields.Ã¢â‚¬  University of Colorado at Boulder, 2008.Richmond, Michael. Ã¢â‚¬Å"Electric Charge and CoulombÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s Law.Ã¢â‚¬  Rochester Institute of Technology.

## Wednesday, May 13, 2020

### Must Be Obeyed ( P. 280 - 1256 Words

must be obeyed (p.280). Collectivist societies include a built-in hierarchy, each position within the society is preordained with little to no wiggle room. In the case of Stalin, he ensured there would be no question of his authority by surrounding himself by subordinates who served him (did as they were told and served a purpose within his regime) and those subjects who may have questioned him feared him for those who offered the slightest bit of opposition were executed or exiled. However, there were those who loved him. Strong and Killingsworth (2011) quoted Kornei Chukovski (1936) as writing in his diary the following excerpt: And HE stood, a little weary, pensive and stately. One could feel the tremendous habit of power, the forceÃ¢â‚¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â‚¬ ¦282). One of StalinÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s tactics to establish his social power was through Ã¢â‚¬Å"manipulation and control of the mediaÃ¢â‚¬  (Strong Killingsworth, 2011, p. 407). Stalin seemed to be quite skilled in his use of the media to portray the image of himself that he wished his followers to see. News articles were written in such a way to cause people feel as if Stalin was synonymous with power. All of this media manipulation cemented the growing bond between Stalin and his followers making them love him all the more (Strong Killingsworth, 2011, p. 407). Thereby exerting his social power through literature and by using the manipulation of media created a God-like image of himself that his followers loved and adored. Certain individuals believe that it is unimaginable the atrocious acts a dictator will orchestrate to ensure the submission of hi s followers to his rule. Leading them to wonder why people follow dictators? In the book, The Psychology of Dictatorship by Fathali M. Moghaddam (2013), the author addresses several aspects as to what it means to live under a dictatorship. The first point of interest is how individuals tend to assume the worldview of their particular culture (p. 47). Shiraev and Levy (2013) explain that when this happens, it is called groupthink (p. 283) within a dictatorship, each